Guide Students Encyclopedia of Great American Writers, Vol. 4: 1945 to 1970

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  2. Experimentation and Beat poetry
  3. Bertrand Russell
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Ashton 'Snowy' Rhoades. Lafe Schroeder, a prewar trader, was based on Savo. With the Tulagi and Gavutu-Tanambogo radio network disabled, Mrs Boyne, the wife of the Manager of the Vanikolo Kauri Timber Company at Vanikolo Island in the south of the Protectorate relayed messages between the coastwatchers in the northeast and the new control station in the New Hebrides.

The Japanese long-range Zeros were faster and more manoeuvrable than the equivalent American planes, and because the Marines had only short-range radar they had no way to know when they were coming. Without the coastwatcher reports, it would have been far more difficult for the Allies to retake the Solomon Islands and the loss of life would have been much greater.

Lord ; Horton ; Clemens [] ; Feuer ; Trench Activities on Buka and Bougainville, and particularly the reports from coastwatchers Mason and Read, were integral to activities in the central Solomons. From January to May , a small Australian force based at Tulagi had watched and attempted to harass the Japanese, and the Royal Australian Navy, using local officers and planters, had established the chain of coastwatchers who remained behind to monitor the Japanese presence. After heavy air raids on 1 and 2 May, Tulagi fell on 3 May. The Japanese also occupied Guadalcanal on 20 June.

In late July, they began building an airfield at Lungga and a camp at nearby Kukum, from which they intended to intercept Allied shipping in the Pacific and undertake operations in nearby New Guinea. They recruited local people as labourers and imported Korean and other workers. By early August about four thousand Japanese were in the Lungga-Kukum area. They built a seaplane base at Tulagi, intending to expand the port to house Japanese naval operations for an attack on Australia and New Zealand.

Laracy , American forces then moved to retake Tulagi and Guadalcanal. They were aware that the airfield was being constructed on Guadalcanal through coastwatcher reports. From their eyrie on Gold Ridge the coastwatchers had seen the Japanese patrols in June and July, and in late July watched a convoy unload two thousand Korean construction workers, four hundred infantry and heavy-duty construction equipment. Likewise, in the early hours of 7 August they watched eighty U. They did not know that the Marines had brought with them some old 'Solomon hands' to provide local knowledge, including three Protectorate officers-Dick Crofton Horton q.

Josselyn and Alexander Nicol Nick Waddell q. The war in the Solomons was short, but its impact was great. After the small-scale mission, government and plantation presence before , the quantities of war machinery and troops that suddenly arrived were for Solomon Islanders beyond comprehension. The fighting was terrifying and it is sobering to realise that most of the participants were untried youths, many fresh from Middle America, or young Japanese men from rural areas. Very few of them had any idea of the horrors they had to face.

They dealt daily with almost unimaginable terrors. On land the fighting moved through the mud and jungles, with mosquitoes and their malaria as formidable as any human enemy. The object was to take control of the nearby Japanese airfield still under construction and to expel the Japanese from the island. It is difficult to imagine how they felt before landing, waiting on ships and in barges in full knowledge that the death rates on Guadalcanal were expected to be high. Troops of the 1st and 5th Marines landed, supported by fire from three cruisers and four destroyers, and by an attack from millimetre howitzers under the control of the 11th Marines, which came ashore with assault battalions.

These were followed later in the day by an attack from millimetre howitzers that the 11th Marines also controlled. Ten thousand troops had landed by p. In one day, Guadalcanal's numbers increase by two-thirds of the total indigenous population in the s. NS 22 May Control of Tulagi and of Guadalcanal and its airfield were crucial to turning back the Japanese advance further south into the Pacific and Australia.

Tulagi eventually became an Allied base for PT boats and seaplanes and a safe harbour for all ships. Later in the war 6, U. Cline and Michel , The intense fighting began in the first week of August involving eighty thousand foreign soldiers, sailors and airmen-fifty thousand Americans and thirty thousand Japanese Solomon Islanders then numbered about one hundred thousand.

Fighting continued for six months on land and sea and in the air. The air attacks were monotonous and ferocious, and the naval battles horrific. Between August and November, the Allies and the Japanese each lost twenty-four ships in the battles to retake Guadalcanal-the waters between Guadalcanal and the Nggela Islands were renamed Iron Bottom Sound. In the Battle of Savo on August the Allies lost five heavy cruisers and two destroyers were damaged. More than a thousand American sailors died.

Two Japanese heavy cruisers were badly damaged. The Battle of Guadalcanal was even more horrific than the Battle of Savo had been, with 1, Allied sailors killed and ten ships lost or badly damaged. In all the Allies lost 3, sailors in these sea battles and the Japanese similar numbers. Hornfischer , The Japanese were forced to withdraw and regroup in the Western Solomons, still being monitored by coastwatchers.

Guadalcanal had been a major training and equipment base for Japanese operations as far north as Iwo Jima between Japan and the Mariana Islands and Okinawa. The airfield was a crucial part of the Japanese war plan since it enabled them to extend their attack south into the Pacific and to threaten Australia's eastern coast. This was why the Allies felt they had to stop them. AR , Retaking Tulagi and Guadalcanal and its airfield was crucial to the success of this northern advance.

The U. Marine Division wiped out the Japanese garrison at Tulagi after three days of attacks, which began at dawn on 7 August. Initially, the landing on Guadalcanal was an anticlimax since the Japanese were nowhere to be seen. The first wave of Americans found the airfield and its surrounds deserted, secured the area and penetrated ten kilometres inland as far as Mt. Austen, which was used as an observation post. They dug in around Lungga and awaited the Japanese retaliation, which began the next day.

During the fighting, one Australian cruiser and two American cruisers were sunk, causing the transports to withdraw. This left the Marines short of supplies for two months, and they survived on purloined Japanese food rations. Intense fighting continued for the next three months as the Japanese tried to drive out the Americans, and the Allies sent wave after wave of military force north from the New Hebrides to combat the Japanese advance.

The battle to retake Guadalcanal was finally won in November and December when the Allies regained control of the sea through several bloody and destructive battles. In January and February the Americans expanded their perimeter against the demoralised remaining Japanese and by February, though Japanese night and some day bombing continued, Guadalcanal was under Allied control. The last Japanese daytime attack came in June Trench , The Seabees-the 6th Naval Construction Battalion-helped the Marines build the extensive military facilities, which eventually became the nucleus of Honiara.

The logistics of the Allied occupation bedazzled the Solomon Islanders who were used to the British 'shoe string' style of administration. They also puzzled over the bright yellow skins of the Allied troops, which was caused by the Atabrine tablets they took to ward off malaria. One less obvious side of the Pacific war was the advance in knowledge of how to combat endemic malaria and keep it from spreading to islands where it did not exist.

Japanese planes continued daily bombings of the Guadalcanal airfield, flying out to Rabaul and arriving between midday and p. Others came at night and dropped bombs at random. The Marines suffered from combat fatigue and shell shock and many developed a deep hatred for the Japanese. The Japanese soldiers were in no better condition and both sides treated each other barbarously. Cline and Michel The immense and frightening military and engineering machines were only one aspect of the war in the Solomons.

Before the war, the British had ruled with 'smoke and mirrors', bolstered by a seemingly indomitable sense of their own racial and cultural superiority, and they suffered a great loss of face when they and other foreigners fled the islands in an undignified manner. Solomon Islanders needed no Western education to see that the British were in trouble in a way they had never thought possible.

The planters left or became coastwatchers, and left their labourers to fend for themselves on the plantations-more than two thousand had to be taken home by a flotilla of government and private vessels. Solomon Islanders formed significant, supportive relationships with the coastwatchers, sheltering and protecting them. Solomon Islanders seldom compromised coastwatchers' positions, and remained loyal to them despite Japanese entreaties and threats. Helping coastwatchers and carrying information on Japanese patrols and positions were former police like Jacob Vouza q.

Vouza, a retired police Sergeant Major was captured and brutally bayoneted during August , but escaped to the American lines to pass on valuable information. Solomon Islanders came together with Europeans from the prewar Protectorate in a camaraderie based on humanity in the extraordinary circumstances, although there was no real sense of equality.


Many who joined up in the Defence Force, about six hundred in all, took part in the battles, acted as guides and led stealthy patrols behind enemy lines. Thousands served in the Labour Corps, commanded by Charles Widdy with officers from prewar plantation staffs. Others manned the small government ships, which continued to operate under hazardous conditions.

The Defence Force men were able to slip through the Japanese lines and bring back detailed information of Japanese movements on the perimeter. Protectorate and mission health services ended, people were hungry and the new foreigners introduced new diseases. There was a significant population decline throughout the islands. The people had been told to make secret gardens and prepare for invasion, but little could have prepared them for the onslaught they experienced. The Japanese were over-extended and in no position to make friends with Solomon Islanders as they had with New Guinea people in their early occupation of that island's north coast.

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The Americans had an exalted reputation for friendship and generosity, particularly the black Americans who related well to the local people. Solomon Islanders never realised that the Americans wanted to conscript local men but were stopped by the British who insisted on volunteerism, or understood the racist policies under which American armed forces treated their own black troops. The Allies finally declared Guadalcanal secured on 8 February The Russell Islands were then secured to create an airfield from which to attack New Georgia. The series is considered representative of Brazilian children's literature and the Brazilian equivalent to children's classics such as C.

Lewis , The Chronicles of Narnia and L.

Experimentation and Beat poetry

Christian missionaries first established the Calcutta School-Book Society in the 19th century, creating a separate genre for children's literature in that country. Magazines and books for children in native languages soon appeared. Nobel Prize -winner Rabindranath Tagore wrote plays, stories, and poems for children, including one work illustrated by painter Nandalal Bose. They worked from the end of the nineteenth century into the beginning of the twentieth.

Tagore's work was later translated into English, with Bose's pictures. His stories were didactic in nature. The first full-length children's book was Khar Khar Mahadev by Narain Dixit , which was serialized in one of the popular children's magazines in Other writers include Premchand , and poet Sohan Lal Dwivedi.

Bengali children's literature flourished in the later part of the twentieth century. Educator Gijubhai Badheka published over books in the Children's literature in Gujarati language , and many are still popular. In , political cartoonist K. Shankar Pillai founded the Children's Book Trust publishing company. The firm became known for high quality children's books, and many of them were released in several languages.

He wrote biographies of many historical personalities, such as Kapila Deva. In , the firm organized a writers' competition to encourage quality children's writing. One of the pioneering children's writer in Persian was Mehdi Azar-Yazdi. Originally, for centuries, stories were told by Africans in their native languages, many being told during social gatherings.

Stories varied between mythic narratives dealing with creation and basic proverbs showcasing human wisdom. These narratives were passed down from generation to generation orally. Most children's books depict the African culture and lifestyle, and trace their roots to traditional folktales, riddles, and proverbs. Publishing companies also aided in the development of children's literature. Children's literature can be divided into categories, either according to genre or the intended age of the reader. A literary genre is a category of literary compositions. Genres may be determined by technique, tone, content, or length.

According to Anderson, [88] there are six categories of children's literature with some significant subgenres :. The criteria for these divisions are vague, and books near a borderline may be classified either way. Books for younger children tend to be written in simple language, use large print, and have many illustrations. Books for older children use increasingly complex language, normal print, and fewer if any illustrations. The categories with an age range are these:. Pictures have always accompanied children's stories.

Generally, artwork plays a greater role in books intended for younger readers especially pre-literate children. Children's picture books often serve as an accessible source of high quality art for young children. Even after children learn to read well enough to enjoy a story without illustrations, they like their elders continue to appreciate the occasional drawings found in chapter books.

According to Joyce Whalley in The International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature , "an illustrated book differs from a book with illustrations in that a good illustrated book is one where the pictures enhance or add depth to the text. Acting as a kind of encyclopedia, Orbis Pictus had a picture on every page, followed by the name of the object in Latin and German. It was translated into English in and was used in homes and schools around Europe and Great Britain for many years.

Early children's books, such as Orbis Pictus , were illustrated by woodcut , and many times the same image was repeated in a number of books regardless of how appropriate the illustration was for the story. One of the first uses of Chromolithography a way of making multi-colored prints in a children's book was demonstrated in Struwwelpeter , published in Germany in English illustrator Walter Crane refined its use in children's books in the late 19th century.

Another method of creating illustrations for children's books was etching , used by George Cruikshank in the s. Most pictures were still black-and-white, and many color pictures were hand colored, often by children.

Bertrand Russell

Twentieth-century artists such as Kay Nielson , Edmund Dulac , and Arthur Rackham produced illustrations that are still reprinted today. After World War II, offset lithography became more refined, and painter-style illustrations, such as Brian Wildsmith 's were common by the s. Mahony and Beulah Folmsbee, catalogs illustrators of children's books over two centuries. Professional organizations, dedicated publications, individual researchers and university courses conduct scholarship on children's literature.

Wolf, et al.

Typically, children's literature scholars from literature departments in universities English, German, Spanish, etc. This literary criticism may focus on an author, a thematic or topical concern, genre, period, or literary device and may address issues from a variety of critical stances poststructural, postcolonial, New Criticism, psychoanalytic, new historicism, etc. Results of this type of research are typically published as books or as articles in scholarly journals.

The field of Library and Information Science has a long history of conducting research related to children's literature. Most educational researchers studying children's literature explore issues related to the use of children's literature in classroom settings. They may also study topics such as home use, children's out-of-school reading, or parents' use of children's books.

Teachers typically use children's literature to augment classroom instruction. Controversies often emerge around the content and characters of prominent children's books. The academic journal Children's Literature Review provides critical analysis of many well known children's books. In its th volume, the journal discuses the cultural stereotypes in Belgian cartoonist Herge 's Tintin series in reference to its depiction of people from the Congo.

After the scramble for Africa which occurred between the years of and there was a large production of children's literature which attempted to create an illusion of what life was like for those who lived on the African continent. This was a simple technique in deceiving those who only relied on stories and secondary resources. Resulting in a new age of books which put a "gloss" on imperialism and its teachings at the time.

Thus encouraging the idea that the colonies who were part of the African continent were perceived as animals, savages and un human like. Therefor needing cultured higher class Europeans to share their knowledge and resources with the locals. Also promoting the idea that the people within these places were as exotic as the locations themselves. Examples of these books include:. Eske Wollrad claimed Astrid Lindgren 's Pippi Longstocking novels "have colonial racist stereotypes", [96] urging parents to skip specific offensive passages when reading to their children.

Criticisms of the novel The Secret Garden by author Frances Hodgson Burnett claim endorsement of racist attitudes toward black people through the dialogue of main character Mary Lennox. The picture book The Snowy Day , written and illustrated by Ezra Jack Keats was published in and is known as the first picture book to portray an African-American child as a protagonist.

Middle Eastern and Central American protagonists still remain underrepresented in North American picture books. Additionally, only 92 of the books were written by Africans or African Americans. Latimer has criticized popular children's books for their renditions of people as almost exclusively white, and notes that Dr. Seuss books contain few ethnic minority people. The first black family did not appear in the series until the s, thirty years into its run.

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Writer Mary Renck Jalongo In Young Children and Picture Books discusses damaging stereotypes of Native Americans in children's literature , stating repeated depictions of indigenous people as living in the s with feathers and face paint cause children to mistake them as fictional and not as people that still exist today. Barrie 's Peter Pan are widely discussed among critics. Wilder's novel, based on her childhood in America's midwest in the late s, portrays Native Americans as racialized stereotypes and has been banned in some classrooms.

Lynn Byrd describes how the natives of Neverland in Peter Pan are depicted as "uncivilized", valiant fighters unafraid of death and are referred to as "redskins", which is now considered a racial slur. The presence of empire as well as pro-colonialist and imperialist themes in children's literature have been identified in some of the most well known children's classics of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

In the French illustrator Jean de Brunhoff 's picture book Histoire de Babar, le petit elephant The Story of Babar , The Little Elephant , prominent themes of imperialism and colonialism have been noted and identified as propaganda. An allegory for French colonialism, Babar easily assimilates himself into the bourgeois lifestyle. It is a world where the elephants who have adapted themselves dominate the animals who have not yet been assimilated into the new and powerful civilization.

Rey and Margret Rey 's Curious George first published in has been criticized for its blatant slave and colonialist narratives. Critics claim the man with the yellow hat represents a colonialist poacher of European descent who kidnaps George, a monkey from Africa, and sends him on a ship to America. Details such as the man in colonialist uniform and Curious George's lack of tail are points in this argument. In an article, The Wall Street Journal interprets it as a "barely disguised slave narrative.

Baum 's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. With many women of this period being represented in children's books as doing housework, these two books deviated from this pattern. Drawing attention to the perception of housework as oppressive is one of the earliest forms of the feminist movement. Little Women , a story about four sisters, is said to show power of women in the home and is seen as both conservative and radical in nature. The character of Jo is observed as having a rather contemporary personality and has even been seen as a representation of the feminist movement.

It has been suggested that the feminist themes in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz result from influence of Baum's mother-in law, Matilda Gage , an important figure in the suffragist movement. Baum's significant political commentary on capitalism, and racial oppression are also said to be part of Gage's influence. Examples made of these themes is the main protagonist, Dorothy who is punished by being made to do housework. Another example made of positive representations of women is in Finnish author Tove Jansson 's Moomin series which features strong and individualized female characters.

In addition to perpetuating stereotypes about appropriate behavior and occupations for women and girls, children's books frequently lack female characters entirely, or include them only as minor or unimportant characters. Seuss , would typically be assigned the gender-specific roles of receptionists and nurses. Milne , are primarily male, with the exception of the character Kanga , who is a mother to Roo.

On the one hand Growing up with Dick and Jane highlights the heterosexual, nuclear family and also points out the gender-specific duties of the mother, father, brother and sister, [] while Young Children and Picture Books , on the other hand, encourages readers to avoid books with women who are portrayed as inactive and unsuccessful as well as intellectually inferior and subservient to their fellow male characters to avoid children's books that have repressive and sexist stereotypes for women. She also says that capitalism encourages gender-specific marketing of books and toys.

She argues girls have traditionally been marketed books that prepare them for domestic jobs and motherhood. Conversely, boys are prepared for leadership roles and war. S; during that time, male characters outnumbered female characters by more than 3 to 2, and male animals outnumbered female animals by 3 to 1. I'm Glad I'm a Boy! I'm Glad I'm a Girl!

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The book informs the reader that boys are doctors, policemen, pilots, and presidents while girls are nurses, meter maids, stewardesses and first ladies. Mehdi Ghasemi draws attention to the ways Janaki Sooriyarachchi ā€” the writer and illustrator of The Flying Train ā€” validates feminine and masculine voices and visions and balances gender issues both in the story book's narratives and illustrations. Nancy F. Cott, once said that "gender matters; that is, it matters that human beings do not appear as neuter individuals, that they exist as male or female, although this binary is always filtered through human perception.

I should add that when I say gender, I am talking about meaning. I am talking about something in which interpretation is already involved. A widely discussed and debated topic by critics and publishers in the children's book industry is whether outdated and offensive content, specifically racial stereotypes, should be changed in new editions.

Some question if certain books should be banned, [94] while others believe original content should remain, but publishers should add information to guide parents in conversations with their children about the problematic elements of the particular story. Jenkins suggests that parents and educators should trust children to make responsible judgments.

Some books have been altered in newer editions and significant changes can be seen, such as illustrator Richard Scarry 's book Best Word Book Ever. Several versions of Little Black Sambo have been remade as more appropriate and without prejudice. Bruno Bettelheim in The Uses of Enchantment , uses psychoanalysis to examine the impact that fairy tales have on the developing child. Bettelheim states the unconscious mind of a child is affected by the ideas behind a story, which shape their perception and guides their development.

Their environment and interaction with images in picture books have a profound impact on this development and are intended to inform a child about the world. Children's literature critic Peter Hunt argues that no book is innocent of harbouring an ideology of the culture it comes from. She also attributes capitalism , in certain societies, as a prominent means of instructing especially middle class children in how to behave.

Ausdale claims children as young as three have already entered into and begun experimenting with the race ideologies of the adult world. She asserts racist attitudes are assimilated [] using interactions children have with books as an example of how children internalize what they encounter in real life. International awards also exist as forms of global recognition. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the academic journal, see Children's Literature journal. For the A. Byatt novel, see The Children's Book. For the song, see Children's Story.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Children's and Young Adult Literature portal Books portal. Childhood in literature Book talk Children's literature criticism Disability in children's literature Feminist children's literature International Children's Digital Library Internet Archive's Children's Library Native Americans in children's literature Young adult fiction Lists List of children's book series List of children's classic books List of children's literature authors List of children's non-fiction writers List of fairy tales List of illustrators List of publishers of children's books List of translators of children's books.

Library of Congress Collections Policy Statement. Library of Congress. Retrieved 1 June Twentieth-Century Children's Writers. Chicago : St. James Press. Project MUSE, doi The New York Times. Retrieved 24 July Children and Books. United States: Scott, Foresman. University of Chicago. Randon History. Archived from the original on July 15, Retrieved July 16, Aspects and Issues in the History of Children's Literature. Books: a living history. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. Poetics of Children's Literature.

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Questia Online Library. Archived from the original on 4 May Retrieved 23 October Archived from the original on 22 November Retrieved 3 September Fifteen Centuries of Children's Literature. Greenwood Press. Retrieved May 5, ALA Editions. New York: Houghton Mifflin, p. Retrieved 3 August An Anthology of Jewish-Russian Literature: ā€” Zainab Shafii.

Archived from the original PDF on 5 August Retrieved 5 August Retrieved 8 December Young Children and Picture Books. BBC culture. Adios Barbie. Lynn May 11, Detroit: Wayne State UP. The Child's First Books. New York: H. Wilson Company. Children's Literature Review. Multicultural Literature for Children and Young Adults. Westport: Greenwood Press. Illustrated Children's Books. London: Black Dog Publishing.

Ways of Telling: Conversations on the Art of the Picture book.

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Chicago, Ill. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. Retrieved 3 May The Black Scholar. San Francisco: Collins San Francisco. Williams College, Africana. April 1, Making Connections.

follow link Wild Things: Children's Culture and Ecocriticism. Tavistock, Devon, U. London: Routledge. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins United Press. The Good Men Project.