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The decor of a nine-compartment interior in a double carriage used by Victoria during the s crosses the funeral parlour with the brothel. All this sumptuous upholstery was combined with innovative construction — the floors were a sandwich of timber and cork — to reduce noise and vibration. Victorian technology was also applied to the comfort of the ladies-in-waiting, who were provided with convertible sleeper seats used on longer journeys.

Tins filled with acetate of soda crystals, reacting chemically with boiling water, provided heat. Windows were elaborately curtained, lampshades draped, cushions scattered, cords tasselled. Gilded oil lamps, soon converted to electricity, provided artificial lighting, while broad windows ensured a good view both in and out of the carriage. Across Europe, the industrialized monarchies of the second half of the nineteenth century competed to produce the most elaborate and impressive rail carriages, just as they competed in other matters of taste and industry.

Even Pope Pius ix was involved in the game. The mobile throne room, built for him by the Pio Latino Railroad, included a domed Baroque baldacchino over a white velvet travelling throne. This was the first motorized Popemobile. Indeed, this was the most elaborate rolling palace of its day and set a standard of luxury accommodation that would profoundly influence the development of commercial railroad cars over the following half century. In the dining car, which included an office and a washroom, the furnishings were in carved oak, the embossed and gilded leather-covered walls draped with silk, and the ceiling painted with clinging ivy.

Next door, the observation car was an open, flatbed carriage, its roof supported by polished iron columns linked by cast-iron balustrades decorated with gilded foliage. Tapestry curtains, normally tied back to offer the best views of the passing landscape, could be closed to shelter occupants from the wind or to provide privacy. Furniture was in carved mahogany and walls were lined with green silk damask. The ceiling, springing from a cornice in carved and gilded oak and supported by gilded bronze pillars, was decorated with the idealized figure of the emperor, entwined in the gilded branches of a bay tree.

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A cutaway drawing, showing the bedroom of the emperor and empress, reveals a pair of carved ebony beds, which were treated as miniature rooms within the larger space of the carriage. They were curtained with sky-blue and garnetred velvet and could be separated from the larger space by panelled, folding doors. Between them was an anteroom leading to individual bathrooms. Another suggestion of things to come, the accommodation for the ladies-in-waiting was furnished with seats that could extend and fold to form a bed, like the military campaign furniture that became fashionable during the early nineteenth century.

The technical development of comfort in rail travel began with rapid advances in patent furniture during the mid-nineteenth century. These included a reclining seatback, padding for lumbar support, contoured headrests, swivelling and tilting seat mechanisms, armrests and movable footrests. During the s in America, engineers and inventors employed all these features to devise a railroad chair that would support the body comfortably in a variety of positions for reading, sleeping and conversing during long journeys.

Multi-purpose furniLand 39 ture had been marketed as practical and economical for use in hotels, smaller apartments, boarding schools and other places of temporary accommodation, as well as in canal boats and riverboats. In a spirit of efficiency, invention and imagination, folding beds were combined with or disguised as wardrobes, dining tables and even pianos.

Woodruff devised, patented and built the first practical convertible railway furniture for a series of sleeping cars, which he operated successfully in the s. But it was Pullman who designed the convertible sleeping car that became the industry standard. Its distinctively shaped roof provided a longitudinal clerestory illuminating the central aisle. In the daytime, passengers were seated in pairs of couches facing each other. These were arranged on both sides of the aisle.

Over each pair of couches, an upper berth was hinged above the window and fastened to the roof at a degree angle, its underside panelled and decorated to form part of the ceiling. At night the car converted from parlour to dormitory by folding the couch seats to form a double berth, by lowering the upper berth to a horizontal position, and then by drawing curtains around each berth for privacy.

Pioneer became instantly famous on its inaugural run when it carried the body of the slain President Abraham Lincoln from Chicago to his Illinois home town for burial. Photographs and drawings of the car decorated as a hearse, draped in black satin, were widely published and immediately established its prestige. Following the success of the convertible sleeping car, the comfort of the Pullman train was enhanced in the s by a further burst of technological developments.

Full electric lighting and through-train steam heat were introduced to create a completely controllable environment. In Pullman patented the enclosed, concertina-style vestibule connecting all the carriages of the train. This seemingly simple device joined the individual cars into a flexible, monolithic structure and a unified linear space, through which passengers could move for the first time in comfort and safety.

More than any other single entrepreneur or inventor, Pullman defined the modern notion of luxury travel. His aim was to make, as much as was technically possible within the envelope of the train, an environment resembling a good hotel or the first-class section of an ocean liner. By the s a coach passenger seated on a long-distance train, either in Europe or North America, would often be travelling at a mile a minute, relaxing in an adjustable, reclining railway chair with an elevated panel supporting the feet, viewing the rapidly passing landscape and enjoying an experience unavailable by any other means at the time.

Railroads competed on these services to provide their passengers with the best food and drink available on wheels. The dining-car interior was typically the most festively decorated car of a train, its tables arranged beside the windows and set with crisp linen, sparkling china, silver and crystal.

During the heyday of railroading, train interiors both led and followed fashions in architecture and furniture design. Pioneer was ornately panelled in black walnut and featured cut-glass chandeliers and marble hand basins. He commented that nouveau riche travellers were imitating in their homes the types of decoration that they had seen when travelling, just as they do today.

According to Russell Lynes, writing in the s, these interiors were not works of high-minded aesthetic design, such as true architecture. Instead, they were more akin to the fairground or the music hall, places of pleasure, joy, sensuality and adventure. He wrote: When [a man] ventures forth either for business or pleasure he moves into a world where he is wafted on swan boats and bedded down in crystal palaces, where he is entertained by women as beautiful as angels if not so discreet to the sounds of erotic music and the tinkling of glasses.

For the moment he loses himself in the fairyland of the carnival — a prince whose comfort is the first concern of a retinue of servants, and whose eye is filled with riches by scores of artists. Pullman cars not only followed architectural styles of the past, but presented a new image of eclecticism and sumptuousness that deeply influenced domestic taste up to the First World War. It was not the aesthetic aspects of nineteenth-century railway carriage interiors that worried others.

The work of Pasteur and Lister in the second quarter of the nineteenth century laid the foundation for a theory of disease transmission that focused on dust as one of the main carriers of tuberculosis, cholera and typhus. The heavily upholstered and carpeted, panelled and ornamented compartments of first-class railway carriages had the potential to harbour all the deadliest bacilli. As pointed out by one French health reformer in , The seats and furnishings of carriages are in cloth or velvet; and as if these materials were not enough to retain dust, they are luxuriously upholstered in such a way as to multiply the corners inaccessible to cleaning done with even the best will.

Certainly there would be no comfort in these first class carriages for the well-to-do without, for example, thick carpets; but these only aggravate, by their dangerous filthiness, the general insalubrity of the surroundings. It is enough on Land 43 Walter Gropius designed elegant and restrained interiors for this German Mitropa rail car in Its flush veneered wall and cabinet surfaces were enriched by the natural grain of wood and complemented by bold geometric upholstery patterns and jewel-like metal hardware.

The sleek interiors echoed the streamlined locomotive casing also designed by Gropius. Each step of the passenger on the carpet, each movement, whether putting down the suitcase, or sitting down, is the occasion for a cloud of dust to arise from the surface touched.

And as it must be supposed that convalescents with contagious skins, people with colds, flu, and above all tuberculosis are lodged in these compartments, one can easily deduce the qualities of the air that are going to nourish, for a greater or lesser length of time, the newly arrived passengers. In the twentieth century critics of various persuasions called for a more rational approach to designing new building types, new furniture types 4 4 Tra n s p o r t D e s i g n : A Tra ve l H i s t o r y and new product types.

In Germany, the Deutscher Werkbund promoted excellence in design for both craft products and manufactured goods. Its leading exponents, such as Peter Behrens and Walter Gropius, applied its principles to their plans for transport vehicles in addition to architecture and other products. The Mitropa compartment recalls the character of the purposeful and luxurious Louis Vuitton wardrobe trunks of the period, their compact interiors purely functional, ingenious and immensely seductive due to fine craftsmanship and excellent materials.

Despite the forward-looking experiments of the Deutscher Werkbund and the Bauhaus and the published pleas of modernist architects for a rational, modern design aesthetic, until the s luxury trains continued to rely on dazzling ornamental effects and traditional notions of luxury to lure prospective passengers into paying relatively high fares.

In Europe, the Orient Express had been in service since , becoming perhaps the most fabled and romantic train of all time. The exclusivity of the Orient Express was manifest in its small size. This service normally carried only three or four passenger coaches, accommodating up to 28 passengers — but it accommodated them in a grand manner. In their earliest form, the carriages were decorated elaborately, in a manner similar to the American Pullman cars of the period, featuring seats upholstered in leather, embossed with gold patterns. There was carved wall panelling with painted mural inserts, hanging tapestries and oil paintings to create the atmosphere of a grand hotel or stately home.

Dinner was a formal, three-hour affair catered from a fourgon car, packed with delicacies. The mythology of the Orient Express was based on the Simplon Orient Express, which ran a Paris to Istanbul service from to and whose style was a product of the fashionable taste of those years. The popularity of the film stimulated a commercial interest in nostalgic luxury train travel and led to the restoration of similar lx carriages for the newly founded Venice Simplon Orient Express Company vsoe , which began its current London to Venice service in The Art Deco style, particularly of the dining and salon cars in which much of the main dramatic action of the film occurs, is contemporary with the story, set in This situation continued to worsen for the railroads after the Second World War and culminated with the inauguration of cheaper jet passenger services by all major airlines around Yet the culture of railroading had become firmly established across all classes of society and, for a time, maintained its allure through the introduction of trains that captured the spirit of modern travel in the increasingly design-aware climate of Depression America.

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Beginning in the late s, a group of young commercial artists built the foundations of a new profession, industrial design. Among the most successful of these, Walter Dorwin Teague, Norman Bel Geddes, Raymond Loewy and Henry Dreyfuss brought together large teams of talented individuals with expertise in fashion and theatre design, engineering, packaging, 4 6 Tra n s p o r t D e s i g n : A Tra ve l H i s t o r y architecture and display to enable their consultancies to address the needs of clients in just about all branches of manufacturing and retail activities as well as the public sector.

In the harsh Depression economy following the Stock Market Crash of , American manufacturers and retailers needed the competitive edge for their products that was now being offered by consultant industrial designers. A strong relationship between modern design and advertising was forged to encourage consumption not only of domestic goods, but also of services such as those provided by the transportation industries.

Railroads quickly engaged the skills of industrial designers to recreate their image, to provide a new look for their locomotives and passenger cars, to generate publicity and to attract travellers. In train design, streamlining, as a means of reducing air resistance and improving performance, can be traced back to a project of by the Reverend Samuel R. Calthrop, whose extraordinarily prescient patent drawings showed a long tapering locomotive pulling a set of smoothly skinned carriages that bear an uncanny resemblance to the most advanced trains of today see p.

By the late s wind-tunnel testing of rounded, tapering and teardrop shapes for airships, aircraft, automobiles and trains had become a relatively sophisticated method of refining designs to achieve increased speed and economy of operation. Universities, including the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Michigan, had established wind-tunnel facilities, which were used by industrial designers to obtain data on which they justified designs that may, in fact, have been based as much on taste as on scientific evidence.

The implications for the interior design of train cars, however, were significant. Streamlined cars had rounded ends, cross-sections that tapered towards the top and domed rooflines that created challenges and opportunities for designers wanting to maximize the actual and apparent space of their interiors and optimize the arrangement of furniture. Designers also exploited the internal curves, imposed by the external forms of the cars, to dramatize the modernity of these spaces. One of the earliest successful American streamliners was the diesel-powered Burlington Zephyr, built by the Budd Manufacturing Company in Land 47 Paul Cret designed the interiors of the fully air-conditioned train, which through its wide publicity contributed to the growing awareness of modern furniture and interior design.

In an article, published by the Magazine of Art in , Cret discussed in some detail the relationship between structure, materials and style in a modern train interior: our intent was to use the engineering design of the cars as a basis; the thin metal forms, the streamlined outer envelope, the inner surfaces of thin material frankly a veneer over the structural shapes, the intervening voids being filled with insulating material. The thinness of these veneer materials necessitated the use of countless screws whose heads must be part of the resultant impression, or of cover moulds of the same stainless steel, or of aluminium.

In some of the cars, this veneer material — Masonite or Homosote, or where slightly larger dimensions were required e. In other cases these surfaces were in part covered in Flexwood. As the latter could be had in many veneers, in a wide variety of color and marking, it was possible to have the small rooms of a compartment sleeper, each in a different color scheme, thus doing away in large measure with the monotony of the earlier sleeping cars. Although he was sympathetic to the European modernist architects of his generation, Cret was above all an artist who worked in imaginative ways beyond what he saw as the limitations of European Functionalism.

Writing about this train, he described the regional influences in the design of the bar car, those elements intended to give the interior character, while also addressing the practical imperatives of all industrial art. For the upholstery, two-pile fabrics were designed, of mohair material to withstand railroad usage, but of color and design inspired by Indian weavings. Though the finished effect is one of colorfulness and gayety, with a sense of luxury and comfort.

These two trains set the ultimate standard of comfort and style during the remaining great days of passenger rail travel. Loewy and Dreyfuss created dramatically streamlined shells to cover the high-powered steam locomotives of these first-class trains, and both designs have become stylistic icons of their time.

Passenger cars were then designed to complement the locomotives, while their interiors reflected the most elegant contemporary style of furnishing and decoration, using up-to-date materials including chromium-plated tubular steel, clear plate glass, large mirrored surfaces to amplify the apparent width of the cars, sound-absorbing cork on the walls, concealed indirect lighting and simple, woven textiles. The overarching theme was Streamlined Art Deco, a style that effectively transcended class distinctions. He tamed the image of speed, conveying its power and reliability through sleek forms, a new ornamental vocabulary and surfaces full of tactile invitations.

The lounge and bar car of the Broadway Limited demonstrated his design style of the s in its most appropriate context — travel. Both in plan and cross-section, the car employed the theme of radius curves, which swept around corners and up into the stepped coving of the ceilings, increasing the apparent space by eliminating most angular junctions. The bar itself was a drum shape, its form emphasized by parallel and concentric decorative bands, linked visually to the smaller furniture and decorative elements of the car by the repetition of circular shapes, as well as texture and colour.

Built-in furnishings were simple in form and restrained in detail, using materials that were both purposeful and luxurious. Wood veneers in chequerboard patterns covered the walls. Polished wood and leather upholstery were combined with large mirrors, chromium trimming and newly developed Formica, all illuminated by a subtle combination of natural light, entering through slatted Venetian blinds, and indirect artificial light. In this way, Loewy and Cret provided passengers with a sophisticated environment in which to enjoy a cocktail and a cigarette, converse, and watch the landscape glide past.

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  4. He called this approach MAYA Most Advanced Yet Acceptable : in other words, pushing the boundaries as far as possible within the limits of popular acceptance in a commercial world. A glassed-in superstructure equipped with armchairs made it possible to watch the sinuous motions of the long train taking curves at high speed along the beautiful shores of the Hudson River, an unforgettable experience especially when the leaves turned in fall. Many of these cars were built and operated, adding interest and, some said, romance to American railroading.

    Ninety per cent of all mainline American railroad trains were being drawn by enormously powerful diesel locomotives, while branch-line trains were powered by electricity. Increased speed was accompanied by greater comfort, luxury and service in the passenger carriages of the s. Compartments were now equipped with welcome innovations such as electric shaver sockets, private showers and air conditioning. From the elegantly furnished upper-level bars and lounges of the dome cars, degree views of the western landscapes, mountains and deserts provided passengers with unforgettable experiences that had to be seen at leisure to be fully appreciated.

    During that half-century a radical change had taken place, not only in the size of passenger trains but also in the popular tastes their interiors reflected. While the earlier train was charming, elegant and intimate for its 27 passengers housed in five cars, the version of treated its passengers, in twenty cars, to unpretentious comfort and practical styling. Germany led with projects such as the Rail Zeppelin, designed in by the naval engineer Franz Kruckenberg, who aimed to fuse railway and aeronautical technologies to devise a state-ofthe-art transport vehicle of an entirely new kind.

    This was a low-slung, propeller-driven rail car of aerodynamic form and lightweight construction using a metal and ash frame and impregnated sailcloth skin, with an aluminium nose and flush detailing on the exterior. Its bmw aircraft engine powered a single large wooden propeller mounted at the rear. Like contemporary passenger aircraft, the interior of the car was very narrow, a mere 2.

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    Windows were sealed, double-glazed units, fixed shut due to the speed at which the Rail Zeppelin travelled. Ventilation was achieved mechanically through two longitudinal rows of small circular vents in the ceiling, while lighting was arranged in continuous tubular strips fitted just above the ribbon of windows on each side of the car.

    Despite its spectacular appearance, its speed and the huge public attention it drew, the potentially dangerous propeller-drive doomed this car to the status of a historical curiosity, and it never went into commercial service. In the daytime they could sit in an upholstered armchair and view the scenery outside, dine in a well-catered restaurant car, and find easy access to a lavatory and washbasin. There was steam heat and electric lighting, and porter service was available to all travellers. While passengers were having an increasingly comfortable and enjoyable experience riding the trains of the inter-wars years, the lot of the engine crew improved less quickly.

    At the turn of the twentieth century, the drivers and crew of main-line locomotives in Britain were still working in the open air, with the benefit of only a small covered area of the cab to protect them from the worst of the elements. The locomotive crew also formed a strict social hierarchy on the footplate the cab of the steam locomotive.

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    The driver was in supreme command behind a display of gauges and controls. The stoker was the hard labourer in the middle, while the engine cleaner had one of the dirtiest, lowliest jobs in history. Part of his appalling routine was to climb inside the coal box to empty ash from the spent fuel during maintenance stops.

    Hollywood repeatedly portrayed the democratic virtues of the Pullman environment during the Depression of the s, when the country was on the move in search of work, while at the same time realizing the American dream of total mobility. The episode presents the detailed portrait of a culture that arose as a specific response to the convertible design of the Pullman Palace Car. Before jet airliners first completed the transcontinental journey in five hours, and the car provided independence and solitude on shorter journeys, the curtained sleeping berth offered simple comforts at the expense of insulation from other people.

    For long-haul travel, the airlines were supreme. High-speed inter-city trains, however, could compete effectively with the airlines in terms of door-to-door travel times, for journeys up to around miles, because of their ability to move passengers directly from city centre to city centre, without the inconvenience of the long check-in times required at airports.

    Trains capable of cruising at mph or more needed dedicated infrastructure, however. For the first time, drivers had at their command an electronic telecommunication and information system, displayed on the cab control console, which replaced traditional line-side signalling. For the passengers, efficient airline-style accommodation supplanted the spacious civilities of earlier de luxe trains.

    The three main attractions of these trains were their high speeds, city-centre departure and arrival, and the frequency of the service. Two classes of passenger travelled in rows of paired or triple seats facing the front, just as in an aeroplane, but with more leg and elbow room, particularly in first class. The crew also served bento boxes to passengers at their seats, airline-style. The hi-tech Bullets were meant for only short-term accommodation, and their commutertype interiors were relatively dull. Although they pioneered modern high-speed rail travel, the original Shinkansen trains were unsophisticated when compared with more recent developments, both in Japan and elsewhere.

    As in the Shinkansens, their motors were located underneath carriages the length of the train, liber5 6 Tra n s p o r t D e s i g n : A Tra ve l H i s t o r y ating space in the front control car for passengers. The ice driver, seated in the nose of the train behind a deck containing instrumentation and controls, is separated from the passengers only by a clear glass screen through which they can see the track ahead, a sensational experience when the train is moving at nearly mph.

    Although apparently innovative, the front observation lounge was pioneered in a control car of for the Italian Breda Company. While offering a thrill to those seated near the front, the interiors of the ice trains do not waste space on specialized facilities and are designed to serve the requirements of the overwhelming majority of passengers, who travel for business.

    These trains, and very similar models used on the French tgv and Spanish ave high-speed lines, are like huge mobile executive offices. Seats are ergonomically contoured armchairs with fold-down writing desks of the aeroplane type, but large enough to be useful for a traveller with a laptop computer, papers and coffee. These executive loungers also offer occupants power sockets, fax and Internet connections. Acoustic privacy is available in compartments set aside for meetings. Land 57 central aisle. Other high-speed trains have been designed to appear and to feel as place-like as possible, while still offering economically viable seating density and a limited range of specialized amenities on board.

    The interiors of the Italian etr were designed to create a luxurious atmosphere for travellers through the use of strongly coloured materials, style changes in separate areas within the cars, contrasting textures, and sensuously curved walls and ceilings. The sleek prototype featured asymmetric seats upholstered in bright plum, orange and limegreen fabrics reminiscent of s Braniff airliners.

    Could this be the end of the plain train? Probably not! The version that reached production was upholstered mainly in grey. With the near total withdrawal of specialist facilities or amenities on board modern trains, they fall increasingly into the category of efficient, high-density, mass transporters.

    Since safety considerations associated with increased speeds will ensure that secure seating remains a priority, any opportunities to walk around the train freely will be reduced to the minimum as they are in current airliners. Issues included smoke-free carriages, cctv on-board security systems and access for disabled passengers.

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    Designers for companies such as Translink of Northern Ireland work in teams and in collaboration with a variety of international consultants to detail designs in response to the expressed interests of specific passenger groups, and principally the powerful disabilities lobby. As a result, wherever you go, there are few visual surprises inside the modern railway car.

    Wheelchair access was an aspect of transport design 5 8 Tra n s p o r t D e s i g n : A Tra ve l H i s t o r y Natural, lightweight materials, evidence of traditional craftsmanship and striking graphic art works complement the sleek internal spaces of the latest generation of Japanese high-speed trains. Such features give these cars a look in keeping with popular concerns for the environment.

    These interiors state clearly that train travel is the attractive way forward for mass transportation in an era of global warming. The British design consultancy Priestman Goode, working for Virgin Trains, designed wheelchair-accessible seating with a flip-down, theatrestyle seat and a height-adjustable tabletop, both of which carry all the hallmarks of the convertible furniture designed for passenger comfort by Pullman and his contemporaries. According to current ecological thinking, passenger rail travel in the twenty-first century should concentrate on regional inter-city routes.

    There will be less call for overnight services, because routine trips of more than three hours duration will commonly be handled by aircraft. Trains of the future will probably be more or less like the transporters of today, but faster, safer and more comfortable in an ergonomic sense.

    Passengers could become accustomed to viewing the passing landscape at speeds up to mph. However, slow-moving overnight services will continue to be provided on nostalgic cruise trains where passengers can experience the luxury and romance of train travel, as it was in the —60 period, on Land 59 restored, antique rolling stock, equipped and staffed to the highest expectations of the well-heeled tourist. Metros, Tubes and Subways The experience of public transport in any of the large cities of the world reveals certain significant characteristics of the culture in that particular place, even if the system used, bus, underground railway, tram or taxi, has much in common with the corresponding system in other parts of the world.

    Riding one of the colourfully painted trams of Melbourne quickly conveys the vivacity of that seaside Australian city. The splendour of the Moscow underground speaks clearly of the aspirations of Soviet metropolitan culture. And a historical excursion around London Transport design tells a revealing story about British modernism. The history of London Transport is a case study often cited in the literature of design because it exposes so many issues regarding the aesthetic life of the community and the history of corporate identity programmes.

    Some writers, such as Nikolaus Pevsner and Adrian Forty, have considered the interior design of buses and underground trains, as they were influenced by the singular design ethic pursued in the s by London Transport. Yet more can be said about lt interior design as compared with recent developments in public transport. Later, however, it plunged into transport chaos caused by lack of investment and imagination. It is now a useful mirror on changing attitudes towards the functions of public transport in the twenty-firstcentury metropolis. London had pioneered the omnibus and ran the first metropolitan underground train service in the world.

    At the same time, the many private companies, which owned the independent underground railway lines that operated across the capital, realized that their survival was dependent on cooperation to make it possible for passengers to transfer easily from one line to another, enabling them to reach any destination with ease and economy. By the United Electric Railways of London uerl had acquired most of the independent underground lines and the largest bus company in the city, the London General Omnibus Company lgoc , creating a single company controlling most of public transport in London.

    Therefore, Stanley advocated the institution of a powerful autonomous monopoly, for the smooth management of the company and the welfare of its employees, and especially for the benefit of those who used the service. The culmination of this process of amalgamation was the formation, in , of London Transport, which set out to create a recognizably integrated public transport system for all of London. Frank Pick was the extraordinary manager, who recognized that art and design had importance to the company well beyond the sphere of pure aesthetics.

    By means of great technical ingenuity they too have been made flush. Visible screws have been all but abolished. The alternation of longwise and crosswise seating is introduced in order to obtain the widest standing accommodation by the doors and taper it down away from the doors. Architecture, uniforms, poster design, typography, station furniture, ticketing machines and all other aspects of the transport environment, designed in the years from —9, were conceived with a singular intenLand 61 tion: to present London Transport as a progressive, rational public service of the highest quality.

    Corporate identity was meant to encourage more travel by presenting an image of ease, efficiency, speed, safety, cleanliness, comfort and pleasure. Although the external appearance of Tube trains, and even more so buses, was important, it was the interiors of the vehicles with which passengers interacted most intimately. Tube trains had been evolving steadily for seventy years before the formation of London Transport, and the incremental improvements had succeeded by the mids in creating a comfortable environment for passengers.

    Yet the generations of carriages introduced in and still required large compartments behind the driver to house their bulky motors. Carriages featured a year-old Pullman-style cross-section, with a raised roofline over the aisle and a deep coving above the seated passengers. Still influenced by Victorian and Edwardian taste, the cars were finished with heavy, darkly polished woodwork on their end walls, interconnecting carriage doors, window frames and as accents around advertisements and information posters.

    Gooseneck lamps with frilly glass shades provided dim lighting. The cars of were slightly better: they featured cantilevered arms between individual places on the long seats and introduced the colourful, moquette upholstery that became a trademark of lt vehicles thereafter. With the dramatic expansion of the underground lines to the north, west and south of the city centre and into the rapidly expanding suburbs, lt had the opportunity to create a thoroughly coordinated look to all new elements of the service.

    The architect Charles Holden developed a formula for the design of new stations, using a standardized palette of modern materials and a set of distinctive forms, which gave all new lt buildings and those being renovated an easily recognizable identity, although each was designed individually in relation to its site. At Southgate Station, the gracefully arched escalator shaft was detailed with discreet tiling in lt colours and softly illuminated by tall bronze uplighters, set in rows between the sweeping forms of the mechanical staircases and continuing into the hall beyond.

    The effect was grand and calming, luxurious and diverting. On the station platform, travellers were treated to a gallerylike display of large advertising posters, many of which were sponsored by lt to promote its services. Modern artists, such as Edward McKnight Kauffer, were enlisted to portray attractive destinations in and around London. Their posters stimulated desire to travel for pure pleasure and entertainment in the years before universal car ownership, while they also distracted attention from the tedious grind of commuting to work.

    Although many older stations remained unchanged during the s, the arrival of one of the new trains at any station platform instantly communicated the image of a modern transport network. The Tube stock of , designed under the direction of W. Graff-Baker, represents the high-water mark of London Transport design. These sleek red cars abandoned the clerestory-roof profile of earlier models in favour of a smoothly arched roof, giving the trains a practical, streamlined shape, which was also designed to facilitate the operation of newly automated train-washing machines.

    Relocating all motors to the underside of the carriages freed the whole interior of the train for passenger space. Like the new buses of the period, the interior surfaces of the trains were designed to appear seamless, their cladding panels smoothly contoured, all junctions and fastenings concealed to give them a look of modernity and high quality. Metal panels were painted in a soft green, harmonizing with bold, geometrically patterned upholstery, which was robust and luxurious to the touch. Marx wrote about the briefing she was given before designing her first upholstery pattern for lt: Barman.

    These trains were mass transporters of quality and comfort, their tubular spaces differentiated by halfwalls, standing zones near the doors and varied seating arrangements. Because of this, he had chosen green as his main colour for the seating materials. You got dustmen and people doing outside and dirty work going by train from job to job, you also had ladies in fine clothes going to parties and not wanting to sit on a dust heap. The warm colours, luxurious fabrics trimmed in leatherette , hardwood floors, neatly integrated advertising panels, clearly presented Tube maps and other lt information panels all induced a sense of familiarity, comfort and diversion for passengers.

    Details, such as the moulded Bakelite handgrips for standing passengers, the armrests between seats and the mechanical window latches, were all smoothly contoured and pleasant to handle. The backs of the seats were subtly curved to provide physical support, and also to give each passenger a visibly separate space, even in the opposite-facing double benches, which had no central armrest. Subsequent generations of London Tube trains have refined and updated the design. Aluminium construction replaced the woodframed bodies of earlier trains and external paint was eliminated, saving cost and weight.

    Inside, by the late s stainless steel and rubber replaced painted metal for grab poles and wall cladding, while in the s grooved, rubber flooring supplanted hardwood. Glass area increased somewhat, but seating patterns remained essentially the same, although on some lines standing passengers were provided with upholstered rests against which to lean.

    Longitudinal strip lighting further brightened the interiors and, eventually, acid-coloured grab poles replaced stainless steel to improve their visibility for partially sighted people.

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    Yet the padded seats covered in moquette upholstery remained. For most of the residents of London, the horse bus was king of the road, but its regal status was under threat from the growing realization that the internal combustion engine was more efficient and economical than the horse. The last horse-drawn bus ran through the streets of London on the eve of the Great War in , but its days had been numbered since , when the lgoc put into service its first reliable motor bus, the Type b, Land 65 the first bus in the world to be mass-produced. In the early days of motor transport, many different types of bus were on the road.

    Among them were some very elaborate machines with highly decorated bodywork containing grand interiors, finished with bevelled glass windows, etched mirrors, deeply tufted leather upholstery, metalwork detailed in the fashionable Art Nouveau style and highly crafted woodwork. Such luxury, however, was short-lived, as bus operators learned that the real issues for their business were reliability, economy and size. The capacity of the typical knifeboard omnibus was 26, while even the earliest motorbuses carried 34 passengers.

    Horses were expensive to keep and could not haul as heavy a load as a petrol motor, which was cheap to run, even with high taxes on fuel. The first motorbus routes in London were established in with around twenty vehicles, but by more than 1, were on the road. The lgoc, which was then the largest bus company in the world, had been experimenting with vehicles built by various manufacturers up to , when they began building the Type b, the bus that put the company on its feet and that became the prototype for all subsequent London double-deckers.

    Type b buses rode on hard rubber tyres, giving the passengers a similar jolting over the road as they would have experienced in a horse-drawn omnibus, but the smoother power of the internal combustion engine made the ride somewhat calmer for passengers, if not for the driver, who had to control a huge, primitive contraption in the full glare of public view. The enclosed lower saloon had large fixed windows with slim hinged vent windows above them. Seating was along the sides of the body, facing inward, just as in the earliest omnibuses of the previous century.

    Seats were upholstered in a subtly patterned woven 6 6 Tra n s p o r t D e s i g n : A Tra ve l H i s t o r y The evolution of the London bus: the opentopped Type B of , the NS of and, the most successful of all, the RM — There was also space for standing passengers in the aisle, with grab-rails suspended from the ceiling, front to back. Inside, the craftsman-like wooden structure of the body was painted white above the backs of the seats and stained below. With electric lamps fitted to the ceiling in purely functional clear glass holders, the bright interior appeared comfortable and welcoming, like a small, well-appointed waiting room.

    The stairs were another matter. They were unprotected from the weather and so were wet much of the time, making the ascent to the upper deck perilous, and the descent even worse. Yet in dry weather the top of the bus was the more amusing place to sit, to show-off and to flirt, out in the open air, high above the pedestrian traffic on the pavement.

    Upstairs, passengers sat in pairs, facing the front on slatted wooden seats, like garden furniture, flanking a central aisle. The railing of the external stair continued around the perimeter of the top deck, preventing passengers, and especially the more high-spirited, from tumbling overboard while moving to or from their seats. During the war of —18, many London buses were converted for military service, the Type b earning the same patriotic status as the heroic Paris taxis, which ferried troops and supplies to the battlefront in the defence of the city.

    Many thousands of British and Allied soldiers rode in Type bs, hastily converted as troop carriers, their windows removed and boarded over or covered with rush matting. Some were lightly armoured and others were camouflage-painted, as seen in photographs of troops being driven to the battle of Ypres.

    Other pictures, however, show buses with their original bright paintwork and advertising posters still in place — incongruous, carnival-like, joy-ride vehicles in the midst of grim death, carrying British troops into battle on the Belgian Front. Whatever the external appearance of these machines, the interiors must have been frighteningly dark and claustrophobic for the young men who rode them into the gruesome theatres of trench warfare.

    Solid rubber tyres and springs designed for city streets could only add to the discomfort of the troops over the rough and rutted roads of the Western Front. The first new lgoc bus to appear after the Armistice was the seat s Type, which broke significantly with the traditions of horse-bus design.

    From the perspective of comfort, however, the s was little better than the b, mainly due to Scotland Yard regulations against such advances as covered top decks, windscreens for drivers and pneumatic tyres, all of which were considered dangerous. Yet the interior of the lower saloon on the s Land 67 Type was markedly different due to its lower platform and wider body, which allowed all seats to face the front, except those above the rear wheel arches.

    Now, most passengers could sit facing the direction of travel and enjoy a good window view. By the police were ready to permit the enclosure of the top deck and other innovations that significantly improved the comfort of the passengers and crew, yet the buses built throughout the later s and early s were still close relations of the old Type b. Inside there remained visible evidence of their wooden structural framework, and the junctions of all the small individual elements of timber construction were plain to see.

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    The real breakthrough to a new generation of buses, consistent with the corporate identity of London Transport, was the design of the rt bus, commissioned by Frank Pick and introduced in This was a sleek, modern vehicle. Its handsome proportions were the aesthetically considered result of its fitness for purpose, with flush body panels, radius curves joining all the major planes of the body, flush window frames and highly refined details throughout. The inauguration of the rt marked the beginning of the second phase of London bus history, one that would last into the new millennium.

    The resulting product was so successful that its basic form was retained for the revised rm Routemaster model introduced in , the last of which retired from normal service in The upper and lower saloons of both the rt and rm variants provided 64 seats with an additional eight standing places. They were finished in 6 8 Tra n s p o r t D e s i g n : A Tra ve l H i s t o r y The timber frame, clearly visible in the saloon of the Type B bus above , reveals its genetic link with the horse-drawn vehicles of the previous century.

    In an RT bus below the seamlessness of curved metal panels and uninterrupted ribbons of glass represented the cleanliness and order of the modern mechanical world. This is a nononsense mass transporter! All corners were curved, creating a seamless, smoothly enveloping space around the two rows of tubular steel seats, upholstered in the lt moquette fabrics.

    The polished metal frames of the seats provided a clear demarcation of personal space and joined elegantly with the vertical grab poles. Each light bulb was recessed into the flat surface of the domed ceiling, creating two rows of illuminated hemispheres above the passenger seats. Even the organically formed window winders contributed to the sense of harmony and quality apparent throughout the vehicle.

    Although rt and rm buses resemble each other closely, they were very different in terms of construction and mechanics. All buses up to the rm had been timber-framed. Even chair frames were made mainly of timber until the rt introduced patented tubular steel seats. The Routemaster was very advanced at the time it was put into service in Yet to the passengers, both the rt and rm buses exuded an impression of modernity and quality, and, above all, their interiors provided the physical comfort of a good motorcar. With an economic boom, an exponential rise in car ownership and changing values regarding the nature and purpose of public transport since the s, the design approach of Pick and Holden has been replaced by pure economies of scale.

    Although at present a ride on the London Underground remains more or less as it was in the days of Pick and Holden, with train interiors retaining the basic qualities established by London transport in the s, on modern buses all is foreign. New buses in London are imported from Sweden or Germany, and apart from their red paintwork they bear little resemblance to the elegant and comfortable vehicles of the past.

    Eighteen-metre-long Mercedes Citaro single-deck articulated buses have Green credentials, are wheelchairfriendly, and are successful in moving up to passengers, of them standLand 69 ing, as cheaply as possible over relatively short distances. Consequently, the interior appears as a dense forest of grab bars, which creates a cagelike environment. Seats of hard moulded plastic perch at staggered levels, while the accordion vestibule, at the junction between the two halves of the body, is the unstable centre of the vehicle, as it bends around corners and curves.

    Echoing the tradition of the London bus, externally these machines are decorated to project a jolly image through their bright red livery and colourful advertising posters. Unlike the sophisticated interiors of earlier London buses, however, the Citaro interiors are finished in a riot of contrasting greens, blues, yellows and oranges covering their wildly patterned upholstery, floor coverings and interior hardware, resulting in a cacophony of quickly soiled surfaces — like the interior of a detention cell for delinquent pre-schoolers.

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    This is the choice of the client, rather than the manufacturer. Identical m-b Citaros in Barcelona are painted a subtle cream with red accents, the livery of the Barcelona Transport Authority, while their interiors are finished and upholstered in solid greys with brushed stainless-steel grab poles. Floors are dark grey linoleum. The result is a no-nonsense environment that expresses fearlessly the true, mechanistic character of this particular type of mass-urban transporter.

    The contrast between the interior styling of Citaros in London and Barcelona demonstrates the futility of loading a stark transporter with the superficial imagery of pleasure and diversion. The Coach and the Caravan The first motorized public vehicle designed specifically for joy riding was known as a charabanc. These were large open touring cars, seating 20 to 30 people. Charabancs attracted a dubious reputation as rolling bar rooms, but were much loved by those who enjoyed packing into their heavily padded, tufted-leather bench seats for open-air rides to the seaside, lake or river where tourist facilities were beginning to spring up between the wars.

    The charabanc became an icon of liberation for working-class people, who for the first time had the luxury of a paid holiday in a motorcar. In North America, the long-distance bus attained iconic status through its roles in a canon of novels and films about the independent 7 0 Tra n s p o r t D e s i g n : A Tra ve l H i s t o r y spirit and the lure of the highway.

    Although many companies had run inter-city and coast-to-coast bus routes since the s, the Greyhound Bus Lines came to stand for low-cost, long-distance travel in the us. Among their best-known vehicles was the Scenicruiser, developed by Raymond Loewy and the General Motors styling department over a ten-year period and launched in Its sleek, horizontally ribbed aluminium body, with lines sweeping eagerly forward, suggested fast, state-of-the-art road transport for those travelling on a budget or for anyone living far from a train station.

    The passenger Scenicruiser featured a split-level design, with the driver and some passengers seated on the lower level at the front. One third of the way back, the passenger compartment was raised above a large luggage hold, with a second windshield lifting the roofline to give the upper-level passengers an unobstructed view forwards.

    Travel by water often provided more comfort and speed than land-travel, at least until the advent of a network of railways in the 19th century. Travel for the purpose of tourism is reported to have started around this time when people began to travel for fun as travel was no longer a hard and challenging task.

    This was capitalised on by people like Thomas Cook selling tourism packages where trains and hotels were booked together. Travel may be local, regional, national domestic or international. In some countries, non-local internal travel may require an internal passport , while international travel typically requires a passport and visa. A trip may also be part of a round-trip, which is a particular type of travel whereby a person moves from one location to another and returns. Authorities emphasize the importance of taking precautions to ensure travel safety. There are three main statistics which may be used to compare the safety of various forms of travel based on a DETR survey in October : [15].

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Travel disambiguation. For other uses, see Travelling disambiguation. See also: Air safety and Automobile safety. Transport portal. Accessed July European Tourism literature, and the Ways to 'Culture' - Guidelines for Attracting and Servicing Visitors". Retrieved 10 April Matador Network. Retrieved 13 February Accessed May Princeton University Press. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2 March Department of State. Travel at Wikipedia's sister projects. Guide book Outdoor literature Travel magazines. Category Commons WikiProject. Adventure travel. Commercial air travel. Airline codes Airline holding companies Charter airlines Low-cost airlines Passenger airlines Regional airlines.